On this page are notes on the organisational basics, dress and equipage of the infantry volunteer corps of Manchester formed or re-formed in the second wave of volunteering from 1803: Manchester and Salford (Ackers’s, Silvester’s, Philips’s and Philips’s corps); St George’s; Manchester and Salford Rifles and its associated elements. I’ve found it tricky to define the Manchester “area” at this time, so a few other, small, corps (Heaton Artillery, Hulme, Pendleton, Trafford etc) that could be said to fall within the boundary are listed, with other Lancashire volunteers of this period, on a separate page. Further information will be added to this page as and when it arrives.
In the first wave of volunteering, the Manchester situation was simple enough; from 1797 James Ackers commanded a regiment, and two other battalions were raised the following year. With the expanded enthusiasm of 1803, the picture becomes more confusing, with five regiments or battalions of infantry in Manchester and Salford, titled and numbered ambiguously, two of which were disbanded early under controversial circumstances – plus a battalion of rifles whose ambitious commander was keen to “attach” satellite companies, even from outside the county. The circumstance that two commanders had the same surname does not help!
The majority of Lancashire volunteer infantry of the period adhered in their dress to the current essentials of their county militia regiments – dark blue facings, gold officers’ metal, buttons spaced either in pairs (1st Regiment) or singly (2nd and 3rd Regiments). (Further details on the Local Militia page.) With variations, this basic scheme was used by all the Manchester corps, excepting the Rifles. The use of dark blue facings in imitation of the “regular” Militia, to whom the “Royal” title had been granted, allowed some of the Manchester volunteers to style themselves as “Royal”, though this seems to have been totally unauthorised; the letter accepting the services of the corps of Ackers and John Leigh Philips intimated that the title should not be used.
The listing of corps and their commanding officers is largely from the House of Commons return of December 1803, Stockdale’s list of 1804 based on the return, the War Office volunteer list of 1805, and Willson’s chart of 1806. I’ve also referred throughout to Aston’s Manchester Guide, Wheeler’s history of Manchester, Earwaker’s Local Gleanings, Axon’s Annals of Manchester, and to Colonel Walton’s 1967 outline article.
Click to enlarge images.
[Volunteers of the United Kingdom, 1803, House of Commons, December 1803; List of the Volunteer and Yeomanry Corps of the United Kingdom … , John Stockdale, London, 1804; A List of the Officers of the Militia, Gentlemen & Yeomanry Cavalry and Volunteer Infantry of the United Kingdom, 11th Edition, War Office, October 1805; James Willson, A View of the Volunteer Army of Great Britain in the Year 1806. Aston’s Manchester Guide, in Collectanea Relating to Manchester and its Neighbourhood … , Chetham Society Vol LXXII, 1867. James Wheeler, Manchester: its Political, Social and Commercial History, Ancient and Modern, London & Manchester, 1836. J P Earwaker, Local Gleanings Relating to Lancashire and Cheshire, Vol 1, 1875-6. William E A Axon, ed, Annals of Manchester. A Chronological Record from the Earliest Times to the End of 1885. Colonel D Walton, “The Salford Volunteer Movement (1794-1814),” MHS Bulletin 69, August 1967.]
(Royal) Manchester and Salford Volunteers
Col James Ackers. Date of earliest commissions 16 August 1803.
Willson’s chart gives red faced blue, no officer’s lace, white legwear.
P W Reynolds’ Lancashire notebook in the V&A (thanks to Ben Townsend for images) describes an officer’s coat that may be of this corps, once owned by G W Joy, and sold in 1919. The scarlet coat has a blue collar and straight lapels, with one pair of buttons and twist button holes each side of the collar, five pairs of buttons with twist holes on each lapel, and cross pocket flaps. There are two small buttons under each pleat, and the skirt ornaments are a gold “bow” on scarlet cloth. A little oddly, there is yellow piping all over, edging the collar, lapels, flaps, pleats and turnbacks. However, the paired buttons on this coat do not repeat on the other ranks’ jacket (see below), and it could conceivably be attributed to other regiments listed below – Silvester’s or John Leigh Philips’s. Reynolds shows the gilt buttons as showing “MS / V” in a central circle on an eight rayed star.
Roughly comparable gilt buttons, 21 or 22 mm in diameter, are known, the raised design showing a rose over “M ● S / V” within a beaded circle on a crowned star. Again, the exact identity of the button is not clear.
A flat gilt button, 20 mm in diameter, is known, which has been attributed to this corps. The raised design shows a crown over a rose between “R M / V”, presumably for Royal Manchester Volunteers, though since Ackers’s 1797 regiment used the title “Royal”, this button could equally well be from that period, and its identity is not certain.
Reynolds notes an officer’s belt plate sold in 1927 from the collection of C F Gaunt; this was oval, gilt, with “GR” and a crown in silver relief. Exactly such a plate has been illustrated online (below right); the edge is rimmed, and the cipher is enclosed by a garter inscribed “MANCHESTER ● & ● SALFORD ● VOLUNTEERS ●” in Roman capitals.
Excerpts in Earwaker from a regimental order book of Ensign, later Lieutenant, Jerry Lees, of late May 1804, include orders to officers on morning parade to wear blue pantaloons and gorgets, and officers at evening dinner to wear white breeches and military boots.
Aston describes the men’s uniform as “scarlet, faced with blue, and white linen pantaloons,” and a coloured print published in August 1804 provides further details. I have not seen the actual print, but it has been copied by P W Reynolds and by C C P Lawson in Vol V of his History of the Uniforms of the British Army. Reynolds shows a red or scarlet single breasted jacket with dark blue collar and cuffs, the top and front of the collar, the jacket edges and cuffs all narrowly edged in white. The bottom edges of the jacket, below the white, are shown in blue, which presumably extends into an edging to the turnbacks. The jacket front has yellow metal buttons, probably ten, but there are none on collar or cuffs. The shoulder straps seem to be some sort of gold lace, with a large white tuft, though Lawson shows them, perhaps more persuasively, as dark blue edged in white. The pantaloons, or gaiter-trousers, are white.
The black cap has a white over red tuft on a black cockade with button; the yellow metal plate shows an indistinct oval design on an eight rayed star. The belts are white, and the oval yellow metal plate shows a crown over the “GR” cipher.
The Lees order book cited above confirms the cap tufts, warning in May 1804 that “The Colonel cannot in future allow any tufts to be worn in the regiment except such as are strictly regimental.”
An other ranks’ belt plate, corresponding both to the coloured print and to the officer’s plate shown above, has been illustrated online; the oval brass plate has the incised design of a crown over the “GR” cipher, between “MANCHESTER & SALFORD” and “VOLUNTEERS” in Roman capitals.
The regiment carried the same colours as their predecessors of 1797. These were of elaborate and unusual design, and are examined on the Manchester page for that period.
Second Battalion / Regiment, (Royal) Manchester and Salford Volunteers
Lieut Col Comm John Silvester (Sylvester). Date of earliest commissions 6 September 1803.
Willson’s chart gives red faced blue, gold officer’s lace, white legwear. Aston’s describe the uniform as “scarlet and blue and white pantaloons but distinguished by their trimmings from the regiment commanded by Colonel Ackers” (see above).
The regiment was inspected on 19 February 1804, when it was reported as “having received their arms but three weeks, and their accoutrements a few days since.”
[Manchester Mercury, 21 February 1804.]
First Regiment, Manchester and Salford Volunteers
Lieut Col Comm John Leigh Philips (Phillips). By the close of 1803 this regiment already comprised twelve companies of fully 1,000 men. John Leigh Phillips, its commander, had been commissioned Lieutenant Colonel on 16 August, just one week later than the rival commander of the Manchester Riflemen (see below), Lieut Col Joseph Hanson, a man no stranger to controversy in other respects. A dispute between the two arose as to which was the senior officer, culminating in July 1804 in a duel that was only averted when the police arrested both parties. Philips, with the support of James Ackers, insisted that, commissions notwithstanding, he had commanded a larger body at an earlier date; when Hanson’s precedence was officially confirmed, Philips resigned his command. All his officers then refused to serve under any other, and the entire regiment was promptly disbanded, government deeming the officers guilty of insubordination. Wheeler comments that:
The dispute for a time engendered the warmest feelings, not only between the officers and men of the two corps, but throughout their families and connexions.
The fall-out from the dispute occupied a good deal of space in the local press.
Philips’ regiment is not mentioned in Aston’s Guide of 1804. Perhaps partly as a result of its early demise, I have not yet come across any evidence for its dress.
In December 1803 Philips advertised in the local press for the services of a drum major.
[Manchester Mercury, 6 December 1803, 24 July 1804.]
Military Association of the Fourth Class / First Battalion Fourth Class Manchester and Salford Volunteers / First Battalion of Independent Manchester and Salford Volunteers / First Battalion, Royal Manchester and Salford Volunteers
Lieut Col Comm George Philips (Phillips). Date of earliest commissions 12 August 1803. The original elongated title of this corps reflects its composition, being recruited entirely from “fourth class” men exempted from service under the National Defense Act, the legislation for the proposed Levée en Masse. At its original promotion in August 1803, it seems to have been envisaged as an armed association, 500 or more strong. In order to extend membership to other classes, the battalion’s title was changed on 24 October 1804. Colours were presented on 2 (or possibly 9) April 1804. Disbanded 1808.
Initial resolutions included:
To provide themselves with a suitable uniform, and with arms and accoutrements, at their own inidividual expence, upon an economical plan.
Willson’s chart gives red faced blue, gold officer’s lace, blue pantaloons. Aston’s noted: “Their uniform is very handsome: scarlet faced with blue, slightly trimmed with gold, blue pantaloons and short black guetres.”
More detail is provided by a coloured lithograph published in May 1805, showing a private of the corps with marching ranks behind; two copies are held by Manchester Art Gallery. The double breasted, red or scarlet jacket is buttoned across, with two rows of buttons showing; the positioning of the belts make it hard to say how many buttons are supposed to be shown, or even if they are singly spaced or in pairs. Buttons are of yellow metal. The top and bottom of the collar, jacket edges and cuffs are narrowly edged in white, and the collar has a button and gold lace loop at each side. The shoulder straps are dark blue, apparently with gold fringes. The black cap has no plate, but has a black cockade with button, a tall white over red plume and black cord chain and tassels. Plain dark blue pantaloons are worn with black half gaiters. The belts are white, and the yellow metal oval plate appears to show “MS” in script on an oval ground within a starburst. The background figures are similarly dressed, including a sergeant with pike, apparently without chevrons. Overall, the jacket, plume and pantaloons suggest the style of the London volunteer regiments.
An officer’s gilt button has been recorded, showing “M ● S / V” between “FIRST BATN.” and “4 CLASS”. Whether the button design was altered with the change of title, I don’t know.
On 21 December 1804 the band of the corps attended the celebration of the opening of the Royal Rochdale Canal aboard one of the Canal Company’s vessels, on which they played “many loyal and patriotic tunes”.
In 1808 the colours were deposited at St John’s Church, later passed into the keeping of the 3rd Manchester Rifle Volunteers, and after a tortuous journey as chronicled by Bonner, eventually were moved in 1960 to the regimental museum of the Manchester Regiment. In 1963 they were described as “very dark and almost indecipherable”. The silk King’s colour shows at its centre, within a Union wreath, a crowned oval garter inscribed “FIRST BATTALION INDEPENDENT MANCHESTER AND SALFORD VOLUNTEERS”, enclosing the “GR” cypher. (Bonner does not record colours for any details.)
The Regimental colour is dark blue silk with a Union canton; at its centre, on a large scale, are what was once the arms of Manchester and Salford within a circular wreath (of laurels?), of which the upper arc (if I understand Bonner’s account correctly) carries some form of the title of the corps. Though now indecipherable, these arms are probably those used traditionally before the official grant of arms some decades later – a red shield with three diagonal gold stripes (“bendlets”). Above all is a three part ribbon inscribed “AGNOSCENT BRITANNI SUAM CAUSAM” and below all, a second ribbon inscribed “ITURI IN SCIEM & / MAJORES VESTROS & / POSTEROS COGITATE”. Both colours were originally 4 feet square.
[Manchester Mercury, 16 August 1803. Chester Courant, 1 January 1805. Captain R A Bonner, “Regimental Colours of an Old Manchester Volunteer Force, 1804,” JSAHR Vol 41 No 168, December 1963. Howard Ripley and Denis Darmanin, “1st Battalion of the 4th Class of Manchester and Salford Volunteers”, MHS Bulletin 267, February 2017.]
Association of St George / St George Independent Volunteer Infantry / St. George’s Corps, Manchester and Salford Volunteers
Lieut Col John Cross. At its original formation in August 1803, this battalion seems to have been intended as an armed association. In September 1803 it was accepted as a corps of eight companies, and achieved a strength of 500 men including grenadier and light companies. (There is a St George’s district in Manchester, but it seems that the name was purely patriotic.)
In June 1804 Lieut Col Cross was obliged to accept a number of resignations. In July an anonymous letter to the Mercury complained of:
… ever since the first formation of the corps, a few dissatisfied members, from motives best known to themselves, unceasingly endeavouring, by cavil and calumny, and other ungenerous means, to undermine the character of the commanding officer …
The men’s disaffection with their colonel, for no clear reason, seems to have made discipline impossible, and Lieut Col Cross offered his resignation. In August this was accepted, and as the corps was represented by the late colonel as being in a state of disaffection, the order was given by government that it should be disbanded, which was done in September. The controversy took up many column inches in the local press, and Wheeler comments that the disbandment “gave rise to warm arguments and much violent recrimination.”
The “military association’s” resolutions of 13 August 1803 included:
… to Cloathe themselves in Uniform, and to provide their own Arms and accoutrements …
A flat gilt button is known, 24 mm in diameter. The raised design shows a crown over the “GR” cipher, enclosed by a garter inscribed “ST. * GEORGES * VOLUNTEERS” in Roman capitals. I have not found any other details of uniform.
[Manchester Mercury, 16 August, 13 September 1803, 3, 10 July, 11, 25 September 1804.]
Loyal Masonic Volunteer Rifle Corps / Manchester and Salford Independent Rifle Regiment / Manchester and Salford Rifle Corps / Royal Manchester Riflemen
Lieut Col Comm Joseph Hanson (wrongly, Handson), Lieut Col Comm Samuel Taylor. Date of earliest commissions 9 August 1803. A prosperous cloth merchant with no previous military experience, Hanson vigorously promoted the organisation of his rifle corps in 1803 in the face of opposition by established volunteer officers such as Ackers, though the original “Masonic” title was soon dropped. Hanson’s dispute with John Leigh Philips is outlined above, but in a pamphlet of late 1805 he again courted controversy by his fierce criticisms of “independent”, or self-supporting, volunteers. In December 1807 he resigned his command of the Rifle Corps, and launched himself into radical politics and petitions for peace. In 1809 he was arrested, on unreliable evidence, for his role in a large meeting of weavers at St George’s Fields, Manchester, tried and jailed for six months. After a period of declining ill health, he died in 1811.
The Rifle Regiment was apparently disbanded in early 1808.
This corps originated in a modest resolution at a meeting of 15 July 1803 to form an “Independent Company of Volunteer Riflemen”. By the time of his proposal of 31 July, Hanson’s offer was to raise “four companies of riflemen to serve in the first instance in the towns and neighbourhood of Manchester and Salford and in case of invasion, in any part of Great Britain.” By late August the offer had been augmented, to include two additional companies of riflemen.
Hanson’s original proposal included: “the Corps to find their own clothes, accoutrements &c.” Willson’s chart gives green faced black, black officer’s lace, green pantaloons. Aston’s Guide noted “handsome uniforms of dark green and … rifle guns and sabres.”
An undated monochrome mezzotint reproduces a portrait of Hanson by Charles Allingham (above – click to enlarge). His dark green jacket has a black collar and cuffs, the collar apparently lined black. The jacket front is heavily looped with black cord or narrow lace, with three rows of silvered ball buttons, 16 being visible in one outer row above the sash, so perhaps 20 or so overall. The collar has a single ball button at each side, though it is not clear if it also has a lace loop. The pointed cuffs fasten with four ball buttons, one in the cuff and three above. Beneath the jacket is a dark green waistcoat with green collar, fastened by ball buttons without lacing. Hanson’s white shirt and black cravat are obvious, but the shirt ruffle is not prominent.
The dark green pantaloons show elaborate Austrian knots of the same lace; no seam stripe is visible, but the dress of the other ranks (see below) suggests that it was present. The plain black cap, with a curved glazed peak, has no plate, cockade or plume, but has cords and tassels. The sash, with elaborate tassels, is held by a narrow black waist belt that holds the sabre, with a lions’ heads and snake buckle. Hanson wears light toned (yellow?) leather gloves. No ball buttons seem to have been identified for this corps, which suggests that they may have been plain.
Hanson also wore innovative “boots, or high laced shoes” – presumably a precursor of the modern military boot, and related to the “backstrap lace boots for sharp shooters” then offered by London military shoemakers, or the “high shoes, laced in front” of the Duke of Cumberland’s Sharpshooters. At his presentation at court in December 1803, he was required, contrary to the usual etiquette, to wear his cap, pantaloons and these boots “for the inspection of His Majesty”. (The same requirement, on the same occasion and for the same purpose, was made of Captain John Barber of the Duke of Cumberland’s Sharpshooters, wearing his version of the boots.)
On 1 February 1805 the regiment presented Hanson with a sword, a pair of pistols and a pike of “the most brilliant and exquisite workmanship”; details of the ornamentation and inscriptions are beyond the scope of this page, but it’s worth noting that the sword belt was of green velvet embroidered with gold. The pike (see below concerning the attached companies of pikemen) was entirely of silver, highly ornamented in gold, the staff included, and clearly a symbolic gift with no practical use.
A fine painting of 1807 by an unknown artist, now in the Astley Cheetham Collection at Stalybridge, shows the “splendid cavalcade” through Manchester in April that year of Francis Dukinfield Astley (see under Dukinfield Riflemen, below) on his appointment as High Sheriff of Cheshire, accompanied by the full corps. (Thanks to Garry Smith for images. These are not for reproduction, so my drawings from them are shown below.) Little detail is visible, but officers are shown as in the Hanson portrait, with sabres drawn, their sashes crimson and the “snake” buckles of yellow metal. Here the white shirt ruffles are very prominent at the upper jacket opening.
The most detailed source for the dress of other ranks is a rather beautiful coloured aquatint of 1806 (shown above – click to enlarge); a copy with excellent enlargement is online at the Anne S K Brown collection. Here the dark green jacket has self-coloured collar and cuffs, not black. On close examination, the collar shows a single ball button and cord or lace loop at each side. At the base of the collar is another ball button that may hold a cord shoulder strap. No cuff details are shown. The front has three rows of (probably) 20 ball buttons, looped with black cord. The dark green pantaloons have black tape seam stripes (running to the top, not across the rear) and Austrian knots, less elaborate than those on the Hanson portrait, in black tape and cord. They are worn, apparently, with short boots with black top edges and tassels, though the front lacing as described for Hanson’s boots (above) is not visible. The lengthy cap cords and tassels, which run around the base of the cap as well as diagonally, are clearly shown as dark green.
The rifle is held by a black sling, with six ball buttons for adjustment. A broad black shoulder belt carries a cord for a powder horn. The waist belt, noticeably broader than the officers’ sword belts, has a white metal snake buckle, and holds the sabre (not a bayonet), but no ball pouch. Though a white shirt and black cravat are visible at the throat, there is no prominent shirt ruffle, though this is clearly shown for all ranks in the Stalybridge painting. In that painting a sergeant is distinguishable by a red or crimson sash; his narrow black waist belt has a snake clasp of yellow metal.
Aston notes that the Riflemen “have the best military band in the kingdom; it consists of upwards of thirty volunteer performers who have patriotically resolved in case of invasion to lay aside their instruments of music and exchange them for those of war.” This band, apparently twenty or so strong, is shown prominently in the Stalybridge painting (sketches above, click to enlarge); details are difficult to pick out, but the instrumentalists appear to wear green jackets with black collars and cuffs, the collar with a ball button at each side, the cuffs with ball buttons (at least three showing) around the top edge. The jacket fronts have the expected three rows of buttons and connecting black cord. Details of the pantaloons are not clear, but short black boots are worn, and the caps are as known. Sabres are held by narrow black waist belts with yellow metal clasps, and the bandmaster is distinguished by a red sash.
The drummers – five side drums and a bass – are differently dressed; their jackets additionally have black shoulder straps edged in white, terminating in large white tufts or rolls, while each sleeve has four lines of white tuft or fringe. The drums have yellow hoops decorated with green(?) serpentine lines. The body of each drum appears red, with a tack design, the fronts painted green(?) with a design that is not clearly visible. The drum slings are black, with white edges and a white central stripe. The drummers also wear sabres on the waist belt.
The colours – unusual for a rifle corps – were presented on 12 December 1803 by Miss Taylor and Mrs Wood. They appear distinctly rectangular in the painting, though this may be artistic licence. They appear to have been presented in the first part of December 1803, “from the hands of two ladies”. The King’s colour is a plain Union flag without inscription or fringe. The dark green regimental colour, with a gold fringe, has no Union canton, but shows a large crowned wreath with ribbons at the base, all yellowish or gold in colour, enclosing a motto in yellow or gold capitals, which appears to read “FOR OUR / COUNTRY”. Both colours have gold spearheads, cords and tassels.
Pendleton Pikemen, Urmston Pikemen, Blakeley Pikemen, Bury Pikemen
Hanson was something of an empire builder, and succeeded in attaching a number of satellite corps to his regiment. In 1803 three companies of pikemen were raised for this purpose; one was organised by William Harrison of Urmston, another by Samuel Taylor, Major of the Rifles, and a third by Hanson himself at Pendleton (Pendlebury?). The Pendleton Pikemen were captained by William Seddon, the Urmston Pikemen by Birch Harrison, and the Blakeley by Robert Andrew (Andrews), all three commissioned on 23 October 1803. A fourth company of pikemen was raised at Bury, in association with the Bury Rifle Corps, and captained by John Battersby (Battersbey), commissioned 16 December 1803.
Hanson stated that he “clothed [his company] and armed them with Pikes and Swords, at my own expence”, and both Harrison and Taylor were reported to have done likewise. However, Aston noted in 1804 that “these gentlemen have resolved that their companies shall no longer serve as Pikemen but that they will furnish them with rifle guns &c and attach them more effectually to the Manchester Rifle Regiment.”
In the case of his own company, Hanson later noted: “I afterwards found them Fire Arms, they being discontented with Pikes.” On disbandment the company’s arms and accoutrements were deposited in the regimental store, and Hanson tried to sell them on, at first without success: “The first offer I made was to Government – but the particular make of the Muskets prevented a purchase.” These arms were not sold until April 1808, while the pikes and swords remained unsold. Hanson’s mention of “Fire Arms” and “Muskets” is vague, and it’s conceivable that these were not actually rifled; in August 1803 William Smalley and Co of Manchester advertised for sale “several thousand stand of second hand soldiers musquets, with bayonets”, and the arms for Hanson’s company may have come from such a source.
This company under Capt Thomas Yates, associated with the Bury Pikemen, was listed officially as an element of the Manchester Riflemen, with which it acted on field days. Yates’s commission was dated 6 September 1803.
Willson’s chart gives no details. An 1804 “merit” medal of the corps, sold by Dix Noonan Webb in 1999, shows a strung bugle, which may represent the cap badge, or may not. Probably not …
Dukinfield Independent Riflemen (Cheshire)
Capt Francis Dukinfield (Duckenfield) Astley. Raised in the spring and summer of 1804 by Astley, a prominent Mason and ally of Hanson, and High Sheriff for Cheshire in 1807 (see above), to be attached to Hanson’s corps. Astley’s commission as captain was dated 24 April 1804.
Astley proposed to raise and clothe the corps at his own expense. Willson’s chart gives green faced black, black officer’s lace, green pantaloons. A shooting medal of the corps shows a figure aiming a short barrelled rifle, wearing a cap with cords but no plume, and a sabre with an open hilt. This is compatible with the Manchester uniform as shown above, though it is possible that the figure is meant to show trousers with V-shaped slits at the cuff being worn over boots or short gaiters, rather than pantaloons under gaiters.
Stockport Riflemen (Cheshire)
Official lists give this company, under Capt Comm Thomas Ross, commissioned on 12 October 1803, as separate to the Manchester corps, but it is said to have been attached on field days, and was present at the presentation of colours to the Manchester regient.
Willson’s chart gives no details of the dress of this company.
[Manchester Mercury, 9, 16, 30 August, 1 November, 13 December 1803, 17 April 1804, 5 February 1805, 31 May 1808. Leeds Intelligencer, 2 January 1804. Chester Chronicle, 16 December 1803. Chester Chronicle, 16 December 1803. Eddie Little, “Joseph Hanson – ‘The Weaver’s Friend'”, Manchester Region History Review, 5/1, Spring 1991. Philip J Haythornthwaite, “A Medal of the Dukinfield Riflemen, 1805,” MHS Bulletin 150, November 1987.]